Hmmm, let's see.
I tend to print interesting patterns on the internet, then pop them in page protectors and keep them in a 3-ring binder. At least, that's the theory. Currently the binder is MIA somewhere after my...uh, less than recent move.
My straight needles live in one needle roll, and I have a second needle roll designed for circs. Within the past week, I purchased one of those cube storage devices from Target...it's a 3x3 set of wooden cubes with cloth drawers you can pull out. I love this because the drawers are lightweight and you can just pull one out and take it over to the couch for sorting through or working out of instead of bending over the drawers or pulling everything out. My yarn and rovings are all in the process of moving into that, along with various knitting supplies. Extra handy because I can bolt the ball winder and shiny new swift (graduation present! yay!) to the top of the shelves when needed. One of the cubes will probably become the dedicated mini-knitting library for all my knitting books. On the top of the shelves, I have a couple miniature clear acrylic drawer sets (container store) for darning needles, buttons, and other miscellaneous knitting paraphernalia that would get lost in the bigger bins. I think that's about it for organization.
I can knit almost anywhere, but my favorite "position" is to knit with my feet propped up.
I'm trying to get into the habit of keeping a small project on me to work on at opportune moments. Bigger projects tend to be worked on mainly while watching TV.
I store patterns I'm working on in plastic sleeves, and put the current pattern, needles, and a ball of yarn in a ziplock bag for easy transportation. That way when I change from backpack to purse to totebag, etc I can just pop the ziplock bag into the appropriate handbag and be on my way. I've been known to keep larger projects in shopping bags or large baskets to carry around the house. Oh, and I do write notes to myself all over the pattern, so I try to keep a pencil around too.
I love using beautiful tools. I just knit a clapotis in Lorna's Laces Lion and Lamb (half silk), and did so on my size 8 Brittany needles. Functionally, it would have been easier on circular needles without having the loooong needles sticking out to the sides while I knit, but there was something compelling about using a beautiful yarn with beautiful needles and I couldn't help myself. I loved watching every stitch of that yarn pass over the needles, and the feel of the needles in hand. Most of the time I knit with bamboo or wood, but not as fancy as the single pair of Brittanies I have.
For row counting, I use a row counting bracelet. I'll lay it out on the table while knitting if convenient, or leave it on my wrist if space is tight. I have several because my mom and I went through a phase of making tons of them in various styles. The one currently on my wrist is black cord with a row of silver beads and a row of blue diachronic glass beads and a butterfly charm on the end. You can see some samples here http://www.craftster.org/forum/index.php?topic=22028.msg179545#msg179545
(You got me...I like TALKING ABOUT knitting almost as much as the act itself.