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Topic: All these American ingredients confuse me...  (Read 29702 times)
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knit_north
« Reply #330 on: August 22, 2006 11:58:14 AM »

you can substitute:
For each 1 cup buttermilk called for in a recipe, use 1 cup plain yogurt or sour cream;

OR

1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar plus enough milk to make 1 cup;

OR

1 cup milk plus 1 3/4 tablespoons cream of tartar;

OR

1/4 cup buttermilk powder and 1 cup water.

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« Reply #331 on: August 22, 2006 05:23:57 PM »

Thanks for the converter links wanderingskopos.  I for one, will definitely check those out.

Another thing to be careful of when it comes to measurement is cup and spoon sizes.  I know - for example - that an American teaspoon is a different size to the ones we have as standard in Australia.  Or maybe that could be their tablespoon, yeah I think so.  Also, I bought a set of measuring cups from Ikea this year.  I was silly enough to make the assumption that the biggest cup was 'cup' sized (which in Oz is 250 millilitres) but it turned out to be a decilitre (which I fugue is probably 100ml, my etymology is rusty). 

one good thing to remember to do is to check out what size cups and spoons are needed.   Good recipe book or website will tell you somewhere, but it might be in fine print.

We produce a lot of sugar here in sunny Queensland.  My understanding of brown sugar is that it is unrefined (at least compared to white sugar).  That is usually the difference between your sugars (the liquid ones are a whole other story though).  Brown (or raw) sugar is your basic product and is interchangeable with white sugar in coffee and tea and chunky type cookies and slices.  White sugar isn't bleached or anything just more refined (I used to think that meant they ground it into smaller crystals but more likely more stuff is extracted when it is liquid before it is crystallised) that is good for coffee and tea too, as well as cakes and biscuits.  For finer cakes and bikkies though (like short bread and sponge cake) you really need to use caster sugar which is finer than white sugar and probably got that way by being ground finer.  It is good because it takes less to make it melt so you use it when you need to be sure there will be no little sugar granules to affect the final texture, like in fudge or toffee.  It is a great substitute for regular white sugar too.  Last of course is icing sugar, the powdered stuff, I'm certain it is ground to get it that way.  We all know that is the best thing for icing and dusting.  Oh man, thats long (I do like my deserts, and run-on sentences, and overuse of brackets).  Sorry, and i bet I'll get a few corrections.  But as far as I can recall that is the who's who of (dry) sugar.
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gyouko
« Reply #332 on: August 22, 2006 05:29:22 PM »

I believe both baking soda and powder do the same job (making it rise and stuff) but they are two different things!  Baking powder actually contains baking soda plus other ingredients (or the other way around, lol, I can't remember).  So you should use the one that's specified in the recipe.
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« Reply #333 on: August 22, 2006 06:00:57 PM »

in a pinch, you can also substitute yogurt for buttermilk, but the texture is slightly different. I've done it before (several times!) with no real problems.
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rhiandmoi
« Reply #334 on: August 22, 2006 06:19:32 PM »

Baking Powder is basically baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) with cream of tartar (tartaric acid) and cornstarch mixed in, so that less acid is required as an ingredient to produce a rise. Some Baking Powder is Double Action, which means it acts once from the acid/base interaction and once from the heat of cooking.

Cups, tablespoons, and teaspoons are volume measurements. 1 cup is 8 fluid ounces. 1 fl oz is about 30 mL so 1 cup is about 240 mL.

1 teaspon (tsp) is about 5 mL.
1 Tablespoon (Tbsp) is about 15 mL.
There are 16 Tablespoons in a Cup.
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McJulie-O
« Reply #335 on: August 22, 2006 06:21:26 PM »

Brown sugar is sugar that has had molasses added to it, for color and a mellow distinctive flavor. It is moister than white sugar and when measuring it, one must pack the brown sugar down firmly into the measuring cup to get an accurate read.
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mmd32
« Reply #336 on: August 22, 2006 06:22:47 PM »

Thanks for the converter links wanderingskopos.  I for one, will definitely check those out.

Another thing to be careful of when it comes to measurement is cup and spoon sizes.  I know - for example - that an American teaspoon is a different size to the ones we have as standard in Australia.  Or maybe that could be their tablespoon, yeah I think so.  Also, I bought a set of measuring cups from Ikea this year.  I was silly enough to make the assumption that the biggest cup was 'cup' sized (which in Oz is 250 millilitres) but it turned out to be a decilitre (which I fugue is probably 100ml, my etymology is rusty). 

one good thing to remember to do is to check out what size cups and spoons are needed.   Good recipe book or website will tell you somewhere, but it might be in fine print.

We produce a lot of sugar here in sunny Queensland.  My understanding of brown sugar is that it is unrefined (at least compared to white sugar).  That is usually the difference between your sugars (the liquid ones are a whole other story though).  Brown (or raw) sugar is your basic product and is interchangeable with white sugar in coffee and tea and chunky type cookies and slices.  White sugar isn't bleached or anything just more refined (I used to think that meant they ground it into smaller crystals but more likely more stuff is extracted when it is liquid before it is crystallised) that is good for coffee and tea too, as well as cakes and biscuits.  For finer cakes and bikkies though (like short bread and sponge cake) you really need to use caster sugar which is finer than white sugar and probably got that way by being ground finer.  It is good because it takes less to make it melt so you use it when you need to be sure there will be no little sugar granules to affect the final texture, like in fudge or toffee.  It is a great substitute for regular white sugar too.  Last of course is icing sugar, the powdered stuff, I'm certain it is ground to get it that way.  We all know that is the best thing for icing and dusting.  Oh man, thats long (I do like my deserts, and run-on sentences, and overuse of brackets).  Sorry, and i bet I'll get a few corrections.  But as far as I can recall that is the who's who of (dry) sugar.

Even your standard "cup" size is different than the US cup. They seem the same, but the AUS cup is more than the US cup. Don't know by how much, though. Teaspoons and tablespoons are the same in both countries, afaik. A teaspoon is def not a tablespoon, though!

Sugars.

Brown sugar is moist and def different than white sugar. What you are thinking of is called turbinado or raw sugar in the US. It's just unrefined sugar. The recipe mentioned above re mixing white sugar and molasses together would work. I am pretty sure you have brown sugar here, though...I could have sworn I've used it over here!

White sugar in the US is finer than the white sugar here in Australia, so for some recipes, where texture is an issue, I always use caster sugar, cause it is finer. I think the caster sugar here is similar to US caster or superfine.

Powdered sugar (confectioners sugar, icing sugar) is the same in the US and Australia.

Baking powder is a mix of baking soda and tartaric acid. Baking soda and baking powder are both rising agents, but baking powder has a more gentle action, I think. You can find substitution recipes online, on how to mix baking soda and tartaric acid.

Buttermilk is traditionally the liquid left over after buttermaking. But the stuff they are talking about in recipes is cultured buttermilk, which is a bit different. Soured milk makes a good sub, though, as well as the diluted yogurt mentioned above.

HTH!
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McJulie-O
« Reply #337 on: August 22, 2006 06:24:50 PM »

Everything you could ever want to know about sugar: http://www.answers.com/topic/sugar
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« Reply #338 on: August 23, 2006 06:30:24 AM »

Oh wow. There seems to be a whole bunch of things to know about sugar.. Smiley I wonder if there are university classes to take about the chemistry of cooking... If so, I'm pretty sure what I'm going to be doing when I graduate!
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« Reply #339 on: August 23, 2006 07:10:55 AM »

Here are a few  conversion charts  I like to  use.

http://www.onlineconversion.com/    this has links to  convert  almost  anything to  almost  anything  but  not good  for  substitions.    scroll down to COOKING CONVERSIONS  for the most commonly used for recipes.

http://www.cooks.com/rec/convert/          this  one is really nice it  gives  several different equivalants for  a  measurement.



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looking for instant coffee from australia or russia made with mustard and champagne.  VIOLET CRUMBLES and VEGEMITE would be welcome swap items!!
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