I always keep a bag of Asian season vegetables in the freezer and a box of quick cooking rice in the cabinet to throw together a stir fry.
I usually have beans to make burritos.
And I keep cous cous, vegan mac and chreese and Uncle Ben's for quick sides. When I have extra cash I stock up on vegan chicken nuggets, Tofurkey sausages and the like to go with them.
This isn't super fast, but i always keep garbanzos, kidney beans, diced tomatoes, tomato sauce and veggie crumbles on hand to throw a fast vegan chili in my slow cooker.