This is the best I could figure out, but it doesn't seem right, because then the bobbin rides on the belt that connects the hand wheel to the motor and that seems like it might break it.
The thing in the red circle is what I slipped the bobbin onto and it doesn't seem like it sits very well there.
Here are some more pictures that might help you understand how this thing's made.
Here's a photo of how the thread loops down from the top and back up to the bobbin winding area.
paroper, you were totally right about the center part of the handwheel disabling the needle, I don't think I would have ever figured that out on my own. Any other advice you might have based on my new photos would be great!