Thanks for this recipe. We made 31 jars of this with "waste" from two bushels of Gold Rush apples, last week. I noticed that someone (Keeperox) was talking about not getting to 220 degrees, and thought I might explain how this works.
Water boils at 212 degrees (at sea level--lower temp at higher elevations). Boiling water is exactly as hot as its boiling point; below that, it stops boiling; above that, it gives off very hot and energetic steam which maintains the temp at exactly boiling--no hotter. So water will NEVER rise to more than 212 degrees on the stovetop. (Read on)
But when you dissolve stuff (sugar, pectin, or anything else) in water, the boiling point of the *solution* rises, depending on the _concentration_ , say, ounces of sugar per quart, of the solution. So maybe 2 cups of sugar in a quart of "juice" will raise its boiling point to 213 or 214. (Keep going)
added enough sugar to bring the boiling point to 220
(don't do this), you would have gritty sludge. But fortunately
there is another way to raise the concentration, while making a nice, smooth jelly. (Guess what it is!)
As you continue to boil your very sweet juice (2 cups of sugar in a quart), part of the water boils away, as steam. So very gradually, the temperature rises, as the boiling point rises. As the steam is driven off, there is less water, but no less sugar, pectin, flavor, lemon juice, food coloring, cinnamon, etc. So the concentration is increasing and the boiling point increases, too.
When your jelly is done, the temperature of the jelly is 220, and the boiling point of the solution has risen to 220 degrees. Don't exceed that temperature or allow it to cook at that temperature for too long, or your jelly will get too stiff -- like gummy bears (it will still taste great).
With a quart of "juice", it might take an hour or more to get to the 220 degrees. Make a small enough batch that there is no possibility of boil-over in your pan. Let it cook by itself on medium heat. There is really no point in stirring it continuously. When your temperature gets to 218 (it will be there for quite a while) start checking it every five minutes. 218 is not 220; 219 is not 220. Be patient.
When you take the jelly off the heat, you need to get it into jars within 5-10 minutes, so it doesn't gel in the pan, too much.
If the jelly gets too stiff, you can add it to the next batch you make. You may have to add some water. If it's not stiff enough, you can put it back into the pan and boil it some more (keep looking for the 220).
The magic is that 220 degrees is the boiling point of the ideally concentrated solution that will become jelly as it cools.
thank you for this great explaination!!!! i get it now. just pealed and cored 16 c of apples, for pies. off to make jelly!